How to prevent colds in high-intensity exercise

People know long ago that regular and modest exercise is one of the healthiest things. Studies have shown that trained athletes have increased levels of anti-infective “natural killer cells” in their body. However, people who practice endurance may know that hard training for events such as cycling or marathon may cause you to have a head-cold or other upper-respiratory infection (URTI).

Right now, I’m dealing with suspicious pain in my throat, a warning sign that I may have had an upper respiratory tract infection. My strange thing is: how to exercise and sweating a lot easier to get sick it?

Researchers David Nieman came to some surprising results by tracing 2311 participants from the 1987 Los Angeles Marathon: 12.9% of the participants reported unwell during the week following the match Compared with 2.2% of runners who did not participate in the competition.

One of Niemann’s findings is that prolonged intensive exercise can make an athlete’s immune system respond as if he were fighting inflammation. After running the marathon, the athletes’ stress hormones, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokines called neutrophils and monocytes, rose sharply.

In addition, other studies have found that the human mucosal system (the moist parts of the mouth, nose and eyes) produces a substance called “secreted immunoglobulin A” (SIgA), which is the body’s resistance to pathogens such as cold and flu The first line of defense.

However, after a sustained amount of exercise, studies show that the level of SIgA decreases. The study said: “There is a consensus that the drop in SIgA levels in saliva during high-intensity exercise is linked to an increased risk of respiratory infections.”

Every mother has their own favorite method of treating colds, but here are some scientific evidence of treatment.
One of the most studied cold remedies is mineral zinc, which has been shown to inhibit the replication of rhinoviruses, the culprit of about 40% of all flu. In the 2014 edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association, “oral zinc is associated with shorter duration of common cold in healthy people.” However, other studies show conflicting results.

George Eby, a US researcher who discovered that zinc is good for the flu, argues that the main reason is that only positively charged zinc ions have an anti-infective effect. Therefore, athletes should take tablets containing zinc acetate or zinc gluconate instead of the usual zinc citrate.

According to a 2013 Cochrane Review data, the much touted vitamin C usually fails to prevent a cold-though it may have some benefits for high-intensity exercisers.
Another recently studied nutritional supplement is a green algae called chlorella. A relatively small study found that those taking chlorella during high intensity training did not experience the same reduction in SIgA as other athletes.

Finally, a very simple and effective method of control is mouthwash. This method is very common in Japan and not so common in North America or Europe. A randomized controlled trial in Japan showed that the incidence of respiratory infections was significantly lower among people who gargled multiple times a day. The most effective mouthwash is running water, rather than the market can see a variety of medicinal mouthwash, the most likely reason is that chlorine added to drinking water can inhibit the virus.

Chinese buildings in the eyes of Dutch photographers

Iwan Baan, a Dutch photographer who visited China for 10 times a year, this time attending the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Biennale for the first time. In early December 2015, in the old flour mill building next to Shekou Port Ship, Ivan took pictures of her on mobile phones and placed Instagram on trips around the world, being printed on a piece of cloth that is as high as a wall. Hang like a curtain Next to each photo is a number of likes and comments.

Ten years ago, Rem Koolhaas, the chief architect of the Metropolitan Building Institute, saw Ivan’s “interactive panoramic photography” and invited him to Beijing to shoot his new CCTV building. Dutch documentary photographer Ivan began his first major creative project. Almost the same period, he also started a project with the “Bird’s Nest” at the Beijing Olympic Stadium, commissioned by Herzog-D-Mellon Architects.

Although Ivan was awarded the Julian Schulman Prize, the highest award in the architectural photography world, and the architectural design of various countries, such as Zaha Hadid, Ito Tomosu, Wang Shu, and Steven Holl The division maintained long-term cooperation and was commented by the media as “redefining architectural photography” but he did not like to be called a “building photographer”: “If the light is a shoot, the film may be shot with the sunset light Come, but in my footage, construction is just an integral part of the photo. ” His uniqueness is the interpretation of architectural photography into documentary photography, showing the human environment throughout the world contact person.

While filming a new CCTV building, Ivan remembered that there were 10,000 construction workers on the site at that time. “It is hard to imagine in the West.” Ivan knew through translation that all the workers came from small hamlets in the field and that it was only for a few years that Beijing came to Beijing for work. At the time, Ivan was hoping to go home with some workers to record their lives. “I think it’s hard to imagine living completely alienated from everything I know in an alien environment.” When I first came to China, Ivan was amazed at the number of construction workers and the number of cities under construction. “It is hard to see such a large-scale and high-speed construction elsewhere in the world, which makes me want to take pictures to reflect on what other cities in the world will look like in the next few decades.” It is only later that the practical difficulty is still Ivan gave up.

Whether it is a new CCTV building in Beijing or a new residential area in Africa, Ivan needs to ask: “Why exactly this city needs such a construction project?” Two years ago, Iwan had been to Urumqi for filming , He was deeply impressed by the notion that “the traditional building that has been preserved for hundreds of thousands of years has been stolen as a ‘dangerous building’ and was quickly demolished and replaced by a distinctive generic building complex.” For today While 99% of China’s urban buildings are dejected to be designed with unimaginative GM buildings, Ivan agrees with China’s embrace of new projects by architects and regards it as “a long-term perspective”: ” When Chinese cities most need this kind of imagination of architecture, the Chinese government has commissioned a number of international architects in time to work in. Even though architects lack the style of extremists, after all, they are all playing creatively imagination.”

Meanwhile, Ivan marvels at the execution of construction projects in cities in China. It has been 10 years since I took part in the urban construction in China. Ivan and his western friends witnessed “something that could only be achieved in China.” In China, some policymakers have said that such a building should be in this place or Someone who has enough money and power to do what he says is done is very interesting to us because of the close relationship between such power and the efficiency of the building.Like large projects such as CCTV and Bird Nest in the West It is absolutely impossible to build a project because after the project plan came out, there will be hundreds and thousands of individuals and groups to intervene in the name of different interests, so that the project will gradually be overthrown.

Ivan was inspired by the diversity of Chinese architecture that used to be in the past: different regions have their own architectural style that is interdependent on the local nature of climate, materials, etc., “but these are all erased.” He had filmed patio courtyard in Henan Province, Fujian Tulou and Huizhou buildings. About eight years ago, Ivan met Chinese architect Wang Shu at a group of Chinese architects in New York. Despite the language barrier at that time, Ivan relied on gesture gestures to communicate immediately and Ivan immediately recognized a familiar sense of urgency from Wang’s work: he saw it as a conscious attempt to combine traditional Chinese architecture with contemporary architecture The concept of a combination of architects. The two began to cooperate. Before and after participating in the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Biennale, Ivan originally planned to make creative works throughout the Pearl River Delta. Unfortunately, he finally gave up due to “time and financial constraints.” Ivan also has a plan to film “villages in cities” throughout China and is awaiting implementation.

Challenge Devil Desert Marathon

Oman Desert Marathon, 6 days, the entire 165 km. I carry all my personal belongings, running at 40 degrees under the full temperature

“Crazy place – you can hit crazy people,” says Italians Dino Bonelli, smiling all the time. He is my longtime partner in tents. He refers to “madman” as myself and he and about 75 other contestants. The “crazy place” is located in the hinterland of the Oman Desert. From Bidiyah to the Arabian Sea for a total of 6 days and a total of 165 kilometers (about 102 miles) of race, we have run halfway through all of our personal belongings and traversing the soft desert. Can not deny that this is crazy.
The third Oman Desert Marathon kicked off in early November with villagers in Bidiyah wearing white robe and sword and iPhones in their waits to perform a symbolic dance for us. We then started running, carrying a luggage around the highway ran about 100 meters into the desert. Ten minutes later, they completely left the village of Bidiyah and ran deep into the desert, leaving them completely isolated for the next six days.
I ran fairly stable for the first 10 kilometers. My rucksack is heavy, but they are designed to be pretty delicate, so they have little effect on the road. I tried my best to get to the first service point, where I added water to the kettle.
At this time the sand in the desert has become the kind of sand like a British beach. For weeks, I’ve been telling my associates that the real situation will not be like today. I myself had imagined running on dry and hard roads that had been repeatedly rolled by cars or sunbaked for a long time. I do not think there will be a match on such a soft sand. But after the first service point, we entered the sand dunes, the sand road much harder than before. It’s about the same as crossing a dune in England, but the sand dunes are taller and the sun is more sinister, squeezing itself like a vice, as if turning your spirit and your meat a little bit.

As a veteran who ran six marathon races, I watched my friend take part in extreme sports. With the popularity of marathon racing (now almost normal), the so-called “extreme” race is everywhere. Nowadays, new extreme vacations emerge as the result of the annual extreme events (50 miles long run or even 100 miles long run or bike race and even more horrific Triathlon events) – during vacations Wandering thousands of miles before going to competition. Many races are then using the lottery system to cope with the crowd of competitors. The Oman Desert Marathon was established shortly after the first event was held in 2013, compared to the marathon des sables of nearly 15,000 Moroccan sub-Sahara hellies.
I was deeply attracted by this event, not just because it tested the physical limits, but can spend a week crossing the desert, far away from the earthly noise, enjoy selflessly experience, and they need to always respond to the desert environment instead of dangerous 4 Stroke cars or riding camels comfortably through the desert. Dr Eric Brymer once said: Being able to experience nature rather than looking at nature is one of the most common motivations for getting into extreme sports. “Event finders have a deep understanding of their potential,” he said. “So they have a better understanding of themselves.” Dr. Eric R Bremer is a professor of sports and exercise at Manchester Metropolitan University Science teacher, at the same time is the study of extreme physical and mental health researcher.

I also hope that after completing the extreme events, I will be able to find out more about myself and have a better understanding of myself. But I am still a long way to go.
I keep thinking hard of hard sandy land coming up soon, but turning over an undulating sand dune, I find it softer. On the first day of the 21-kilometer stage approaching the finish line, I almost walked on and off, but even then it was extremely difficult. In spite of this, no one caught up with me during this period, so I decided that the other players should take their own course of action.

After the end of the camp, the camping site has been set up: the large tent of the Berber is wide open. Our daily supper is fixed, in a week, each also slowly established friendship. For many people, this is where the charm of these events lies. I found most roommates are Italians. In addition, my fellow sufferers include the mother of a Premier League player, a Belgian bioengineer, a cheerful South African and a British soldier. I fell asleep in the shade of the tent and fell asleep, deeply delighted to complete my first stage myself and pinned hope that it could be hard sand tomorrow.
However, the next two days, Sha Road, no change, the third day remains the same. In fact, every day the stage is undulating soft dunes. The flags mark the direction, but sometimes they are too far apart from each other and seem to feel like they will never get through. When we ran to the flagpole inserted in the top of the sand dune, we suddenly found the next flag in the distance. We continued to work hard to move the steps, where we could run and where we could not run. The worst thing is that the sand looks hard, so he started to run, but the result was stepped on soft sand, at this time the thigh did not listen to it. This happens one after another.Gradually, I learned how to distinguish the sandy, which is the pile of hard sand. Containing gravel indicates that the sand is harder and camel footprints are also good markers. Camel seems to know how to cross the sand dunes with the best route.
Every day, we consume more and more of freeze-dried food and protein, and the backpack on our body becomes lighter and lighter. Although it is a trick to pack as much caloric food as possible in a small backpack, it’s hard to reconcile with the type of food and taste.

After finishing the fourth day, I seem to adapt to all this. The fifth day of the race is the longest period, up to 26 miles 385 yards (about 42.2 km), exactly the same as the marathon. Before the game, we stood in a circle around the tent, and the organizers read the names of the top 20 players so far. These players will start late two hours, I am also among them.
I am proud to be sitting in the elite player’s camp. After we waved goodbye to other players, we returned to the tent for final preparations: filling the kettle with water, replenishing the electrolyte, treating blisters on the feet, applying sunscreen and wrapping the leggings (to prevent the shoes from entering the sand). The air filled with tension, the real contest began. The leading male runners are Moroccans and Jordanians, who adapted to the desert environment from an early age, although the leading female runner was Swede Elisabet Barnes, who is also the winner of this year’s Sahara Desert hell marathon in Morocco. When I asked her the recipe for her success, she smiled and replied: “There are tips and tricks on running in the sand.” But apparently clutching at this time is no longer viable. The fifth day of the game started!

Living fast group also have negative factors. I soon left behind, form a single film only; This is the night run stage, because I fell to the last, so the police opened a police car all the way to guard.
This is the desert world in my imagination picture book: scorpions, snakes and camels, windy sand dunes and blowing heat waves. But the only “ghost scene” is the ghost soup that the organizers give us every day: the subsequent stages will be easier to run; in fact, the degree of difficulty will be more and more day by day. Before the start of the fifth day of the race, the organizers said that the track after 10 km would be a hard sand road. However, the sand surface is getting softer and softer, just like quicksands swallowing their feet. As night fell, I was still gritting. I can not tell if there’s uphill or downhill in front of me, just using the dim light of the headlights. The slower I run, the more I curse the organizers’ nonsense. At this point I see what gas is not hit one to come – whether it is a scrub thigh shrubs have been very dim or solar stage lights.

But to complete stage, I have to cheer myself. I kept talking to myself and encouraged myself to run, but it did not work. My mind has hit back, has been uninterested. However, this is exactly what the ultimate challenge means – that’s why we are participating in this event. I stopped and looked up at the sky full of stars, boosting my spirits again and listening to my breath.
I only persist now, the time, rankings and even the end are thrown Cloud Nine, in order to move forward step by step. Suddenly, I began to set foot on the journey, concentrate on the headlights shining on the ground, small aperture swinging up and down, shaking water in the kettle is like a rhythmic drum inspired me. Work hard pays off, I finally reached the finish line.
Back to the tent rest, time has passed midnight. Dino and Englishman Rob saw me exhausted, helping me to take off my shoes and fill my kettle before I got into my sleeping bag. I am grateful to this.
A while ago, I was in the heat of summer and spent 3 hours and 17 minutes running a marathon on a 5,500-foot dusty trail in Kenya. But today, the same distance I took as long as 7 hours and 35 minutes.
An Italian player took 10 hours to finish the stage difficult to return to the tent, accidentally stepped on the scorpion again. Fortunately, the scene doctor timely rescue, he can return to the team to participate in the final stage of the early morning of the next day.
What are we going to limit game charts? In the 6-day schedule, this issue continues to linger in my mind. Nick Mead, a veteran of the Extreme Marathon, has said he has participated because he is too comfortable and comfortable in his modern life and he longs for a bigger life challenge.
“Once I ran the marathon within three hours,” he said, “I need a new challenge, and I do not seem to run faster than I did. Limit racing is more of an adventure, running alone in the dark, It is the most thrilling. ”
Ian Corless, the talk-pod creator at Talk Ultra, said he “escalated” from Triathlon to the Extreme Marathon. “When someone asked me why I no longer participated in the Iron Man,” he said, “I replied: ‘I no longer have a sense of fear.’ I know I have the ability to complete the race, I need to constantly exceed the feeling of self-extreme. Challenging uncharted territory and saying “Wow, I really did it!” All done after finishing her first marathon, but full of passion.

Among my companions who joined me in the Oman Desert Marathon, there was a German lady named Gudrun Dautel, 65 years old. After the first day I found out she was Is exhausted, so asked her to join the reason. She replied: “I did not think I had such a happy family.”
At this time, her 68-year-old husband, Hansmartin, also interjected: “Because we have a happy family.”
In fact, everyone I ask has the same reason in my heart: there is a need to go beyond the realm of everyday life, into the inner world, and to take on challenges.
“I still feel good after returning home,” said Meade. “On the first night after I got home, I slept in bed after a hot shower and looked at the neat sheets – feeling super enjoyment. Thankful.”
The finish line for the Oman Marathon is at the beach. After 6 days of trekking in the desert, throwing backpacks and plunging into the gentle countryside of the sea, you know that these events have no chance of being with yourselves anymore. Until one day, you once again started the crazy idea of ​​entering the competition. Back to the tent rest, Dino already had a new plan.
Jad Harnaud Finn is the author of “The Way of the Runner,” book published by Faber & Faber.
Next year’s Oman Desert Marathon is scheduled for November 4-12. For more information, see website. If each player can raise £ 2,500 for Facing Africa (, the organizing committee will refund € 1,200 for the event. Facing Africa is a charitable organization that specializes in the surgical treatment of disfigured African children suffering from stirrup.

What is pottery, what is porcelain?

Ma Jidong: China first mastered porcelain technology. The formation of the porcelain pattern in the world today is gradually evolving from the late Ming Dynasty

Often heard friends around asked, pottery and porcelain in the end what is the difference?
In the Chinese context, “pottery” and “porcelain” are often fixed phrases that accompany each other. Therefore, in most people’s minds, all the calcined soil can be collectively referred to as “ceramics.”
More than 20,000 years BC, the statue of a god of love in the Lower Vist nichtsky area of ​​the Czech Republic and a large bowl in a fairy-tale cave in Jiangxi Province of China – two seemingly irrelevant objects and thousands of miles away Because of a mysterious magnetic field of life and associated. The human ancestors, by chance, occasionally sharpen their rough hands with stone tools and shape them into grit-bound clay. Occasionally, they throw the muddy clay into the campfire at seven or eight degrees Celsius, curiously From the ashes, we have hardened the hardened earth lumps, drenched the water and rattled loud and clear – the pottery that affected the process of human development was accidentally born.
Into the Neolithic era, quiet years of pottery suddenly appeared in every corner of the world, unknown source, but open branches and leaves. The ancient tribes in East Asia, West Asia, North Africa, Eastern Europe and South America all gradually fired pottery. In a tacit understanding, the scope was gradually expanded. The existence of pottery was not only a qualitative change in natural minerals, but also a qualitative change in human nature’s transformation of nature.

Furthermore, pottery collected by rivers and streams, stringing together the history of ancient civilizations throughout the world.
From six or seven thousand BC to one thousand BC, from the Hemudu culture in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Yangshao culture in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River to the Sumerian dynasties in the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, the kingdom of ancient Babylon, the Assyrian empire, The ancient Egyptian dynasties, the Aegean civilizations on the Greek islands, and the Etruscan civilization on the Italian Peninsula – the pottery that portrayed and painted colors all play a decisive role. Their influence lasted for decades.

Two to three years BC, since the mankind as a whole into the Bronze Age, ceramic pottery gradually fade out of the central stage of history, and ultimately only to retain the basic functions of life tools. All ancient countries follow this rule, except in China alone. The wisdom of Huang Zi people, on the basis of pottery, to create a global trade pattern about thousands of years of new products.
Around the first year of the AD, in the Eastern Han Dynasty, in Shangyu, Zhejiang Province, China, “upgraded” pottery with a more delicate carcass and a more rigid texture appeared. Their firing temperature exceeded 1000 degrees Celsius and was two to three times higher than ordinary pottery More crucially, the surface of the vessel was covered with a layer of blue glass enamel, a glamorous glitter – porcelain made in China has since come out.
From Tao to porcelain across, in addition to the higher temperature of the heat, glaze is also crucial role. Glaze, in fact, is silicate, quartz, feldspar and other mineral mixed, after grinding, water coated on the surface of the tire after baptism, the case of high temperature melting, the formation of glassy cooling protective layer. The earliest Chinese people mastered this kind of products, dust-proof, anti-corrosion, easy to clean glazing decoration technology, described as a huge leap in the history of human technology.
Three Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties, porcelain firing temperature continues to rise to 1200 degrees, the glaze technology has also been improved to the Tang Dynasty, has been able to burn nearly white porcelain Xingyao porcelain; to the Song Dynasty, porcelain burning industry unprecedented prosperity, the category Diversified, decorated rich, official, Columbia, Ru, Jun, set five famous kilns, plus built kiln, Longquan kiln, Cizhou kiln, Yaozhou kiln, kiln and other famous Kiln products, north and south, flowers bloom.
In the Yuan Dynasty, on the basis of high temperature and glazing, the last important distinction between pottery and porcelain came into being finally – kaolin, the clay raw material produced only in Jingdezhen, possessed the qualities of exquisiteness, plasticity and Fire resistance, which is also directly for the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties successively fired blue and white, multicolored, pastels, bucket color, monochrome glaze porcelain and other fine varieties laid an important foundation.
Later, in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, the Japanese pirates intercepted the Silk Road on the Sea and the trade deficits with China of the Netherlands, Spain and Germany all accelerated the outflow of porcelain technology. After two or three hundred years of replication, improvement, innovation, and ultimately the formation of today’s world porcelain pattern.

American elite and Asian students

Influenced by the civil service examination system of more than 2000 years in China, many Asians have been infused with the concept of “all things are inferior but high in reading”. This also leaves many Asian parents who hope to change their fate by studying.
Flushing, a gathering of Chinese in New York City, has a wide variety of tutorial schools where patrons are not only Asian students, but also all kinds of ethnic students who are attracted to them for a short period of time to improve their scores.
“Chinese-style tutoring allows me to improve my score in a fraction of a second, with immediate results,” said a Hispanic student.
In New York, the most famous public high school is the Stuyvesant High School in Upper Manhattan. The high school was voted the 2016 National Best Public High School Honor in recent selection by Niche, a school research institution.

This is a special high school which, in short, is a public high school that requires admission to the exam. This school is the favorite school for many parents because there is a high probability of being admitted to other famous schools such as “Ha Yepu” (collectively for Harvard, Yale and Princeton).
“As long as Steven Vinson goes, it’s equivalent to one foot in the Ivy League school,” said one parent of the Stuyvesant student.

An interesting phenomenon is that 70% of the students in this school are Asian students, of whom Chinese are the majority. Inside Stuyvesantang High School, you’ll find the mini-theater and the classrooms filled with images of the presidents of the United States, echoing the Chinese-language newspaper in the window and the ping pong table in the open space.
Chinese elements have become the characteristics here. She is also a Chinese president now, and she was the first generation of American immigrants born in Beijing and grew up in Shanghai – Zhang Jie. At the time Zhang Jie was on the verge of death, was asked to take over by the scandal-stricken Shi Dai Vincent.

Stuart Vinson has been questioned by the mainstream media in the United States, the high Asian-Asian ratio, as well as the possibility of eccentric eyes of Chinese descent. While some Hispanics and Hispanics question the selection process as overly dependent on tests, African-American students refer to only African-American students in the school that can be counted on with both hands.
Cheeky briefing, speaking Beijing accent Zhang Jie said that most Asian people are normal, mainly because of the influence of Chinese culture, on the one hand, “the only reading high” philosophy enjoys popular support from ancient times, on the other hand, the tutoring style The prevalence in Asians, these factors have led to the advantages of Asian students in terms of scores, a higher percentage of Asian students.
In fact, if more than 20 years have passed since then, it is a gathering place for Jewish students. With the increase of Jewish schools on the one hand and the ethnic development in the United States on the other hand, Jewish students are gradually being replaced by Asian students.
Not like private high schools in the United States, students from non-rich families are expensive, and in Stu St Vincent High School, 40% of students come from poor families. Many parents are the first generation of immigrants, they want their children to practice the American dream through elite schools.
Many Chinese parents have stereotyped American education and think that the educational atmosphere in the United States is more relaxed. Zhang Jie said this may be a “beautiful misunderstanding,” or a false proposition.

In the United States, schools like St Davidson are fiercely competitive. Although in the American philosophy elementary school stage “pay attention to” academic atmosphere relaxed and all-round development, but in fact high-quality junior high school to high school, the competitive pressure is not small. With Stalwanson High School, here is the alma mater of four Nobel Prize winners, who say hard social currency in school is academic.
Zhang Jie’s son was also a Steven Winson high school, later admitted to Harvard University. “Students like my son do ten lessons a day for four years.” Stavenson is 41 minutes per lesson, which means nearly seven hours of light classes each day.

But unlike Chinese-style high schools, at Stuart Vinson, you can find the breadth of the discipline absolutely dazzling, including various disciplines such as medicine, philosophy and astronomy. “This is a positive cycle, the more excellent students, the more you can fix a want to repair the class, the more aware of their interests, help them make a wise life decision.”
Zhang Jie never denied the pressure of the school: “Reading this school is like reading Harvard, MIT students in a state of high pressure.” After she became the principal, an important thing to do is to strengthen the psychological Counseling to help children adapt to high-intensity academic, of course, also includes providing parents with a lot of resources and guidance.
Although many Asians score “triumphantly,” Asian American dreams are facing challenges in recent years. Americans questioned the Asian resources squeeze elite schools, while Asians held high scores complained that the US elite Harvard, Princeton at the time of admission, with the standards of inequality, but these complaints are to defeat North ended.
Of course, there are deeper reasons behind this: on the one hand, Asians have fewer political participation, lack of influential entrepreneurs and limited contribution to the reputation of their alma mater. On the other hand, Asians donate money to the survival of American elite schools It does not seem generous, which is not commensurate with the proportion of Asian students. These factors have led to “even if Asians learn more tyrants, but to get elite schools is not easy” phenomenon.

However, Zhang Jie said: “We are not very concerned about how many people read Harvard, but also to their ability to give their foothold in the community and self-positioning.”

My invention changed fly fishing

My dad was one of the first people to introduce fly fishing to the Bahamas. He did fishing guides for Joseph Kennedy, the father of John F Kennedy and Ernest Hemingway. When Hemingway was fishing with us, I was only seven years old. He is a likable person. In fishing, he is still an unmanned master. Instead of begging for fish bites, he automatically bites them. I learned a few things from him.
I was born in 1936 in Grand Cay, Abaco. At 8 years old, I myself became a fishing wizard. My father first let me go to the beach to be a guide for clients because I know where the fish are. Soon, he began to feel comfortable with my client out to sea, or as a young boy, I brought adult barracuda, barracuda, mackerel and tarpon in Abaco’s salt water shallow waters.
In 1968 I started a fishing hut on Andros Island – “Charlie’s Haven” (Charlie’s Haven), which I built by hand with pieces of lumber and some steel. Baseball player Ted Williams became my client. And golf champion Jack Nicklaus. Dag Hammarskjöld, the former Swedish general secretary of the UN, unfortunately, also caught fishing with me for 10 years before losing his plane. While fishing, I also serve as chef and resident musician at Lighthouse Club near Fresh Creek. I cook, fish, and use a guitar bomb Calypso minor.
One day in the late 1960s, Lynden Pindling, then Prime Minister of the Bahamas, came to Andros Island with the then Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. They want me to take them to Northern Barracuda. I knew at the time that this time we had to catch fish.

I remembered childhood. Once my father pulled a feather from a mallard he shot and handed me the feather on the hook. I walked down the beach and immediately caught a North Barracuda with it. In the water, the lure looked like a small fish, and I realized at the time that the northern barracuda must love to eat small fish. So I used a chicken feather as the main body of the lure, eyeballing with some beads on the military license plate, and making a lure that looked exactly the same as a small fish. The next day, the two prime ministers had caught the North Barracuda, and I also invented the famous “Crazy Charlie” northern barracuda lure, a revolution that has revolutionized salt water fly fishing.
Later, I worked as a guide for two employees at a flying fishing company in California. They brought my bait back to the United States and made a different version based on the bait. I originally named the lure “Nasty Charlie,” but they later changed their name. Hundreds of different versions of Crazy Charlie now exist. This kind of bait has generated millions of dollars in revenue for the fishing industry, but I myself have never been paid anything.

I do not feel uneasy about this. I have had a very happy life. I am 78 years old and feel like a 28 year old boy. I have 15 sons and 9 daughters. If you’re only fishing, cooking and playing the piano all your life, it will be like me. Now I’m not very good looking, no longer a wizard to do the work, but I am trying to develop more effective North Pike lure.
My son and I are running a flying fishing university to teach young fly bait fishing in the Bahamas. This sport is not really part of our culture. Fly fishing costs are too high – rich people can afford to play. But young people are slowly falling in love with the sport. After flying fishing camp was opened, we not only taught them how to fly fishing, but also provided other aspects of ecotourism training, such as sea kayaking, bird watching, snorkeling and deep-sea fishing.

Our main purpose will be environmental protection. The Bahamas has an extremely rich natural resource, with the world’s third largest coral reef and a shallow sea stretching 20 miles, but we have to use it in a sustainable manner or else typical tourism consisting of hotels and cruise ships that destroy mangroves Mode, it will make all this encounter catastrophe.
We want fly fishing to take root here and also hope that the Bahamians can better manage the land so that they can truly become masters here.
Photo by Duke Wells