Ma Jidong: China first mastered porcelain technology. The formation of the porcelain pattern in the world today is gradually evolving from the late Ming Dynasty
Often heard friends around asked, pottery and porcelain in the end what is the difference?
In the Chinese context, “pottery” and “porcelain” are often fixed phrases that accompany each other. Therefore, in most people’s minds, all the calcined soil can be collectively referred to as “ceramics.”
More than 20,000 years BC, the statue of a god of love in the Lower Vist nichtsky area of the Czech Republic and a large bowl in a fairy-tale cave in Jiangxi Province of China – two seemingly irrelevant objects and thousands of miles away Because of a mysterious magnetic field of life and associated. The human ancestors, by chance, occasionally sharpen their rough hands with stone tools and shape them into grit-bound clay. Occasionally, they throw the muddy clay into the campfire at seven or eight degrees Celsius, curiously From the ashes, we have hardened the hardened earth lumps, drenched the water and rattled loud and clear – the pottery that affected the process of human development was accidentally born.
Into the Neolithic era, quiet years of pottery suddenly appeared in every corner of the world, unknown source, but open branches and leaves. The ancient tribes in East Asia, West Asia, North Africa, Eastern Europe and South America all gradually fired pottery. In a tacit understanding, the scope was gradually expanded. The existence of pottery was not only a qualitative change in natural minerals, but also a qualitative change in human nature’s transformation of nature.
Furthermore, pottery collected by rivers and streams, stringing together the history of ancient civilizations throughout the world.
From six or seven thousand BC to one thousand BC, from the Hemudu culture in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Yangshao culture in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River to the Sumerian dynasties in the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, the kingdom of ancient Babylon, the Assyrian empire, The ancient Egyptian dynasties, the Aegean civilizations on the Greek islands, and the Etruscan civilization on the Italian Peninsula – the pottery that portrayed and painted colors all play a decisive role. Their influence lasted for decades.
Two to three years BC, since the mankind as a whole into the Bronze Age, ceramic pottery gradually fade out of the central stage of history, and ultimately only to retain the basic functions of life tools. All ancient countries follow this rule, except in China alone. The wisdom of Huang Zi people, on the basis of pottery, to create a global trade pattern about thousands of years of new products.
Around the first year of the AD, in the Eastern Han Dynasty, in Shangyu, Zhejiang Province, China, “upgraded” pottery with a more delicate carcass and a more rigid texture appeared. Their firing temperature exceeded 1000 degrees Celsius and was two to three times higher than ordinary pottery More crucially, the surface of the vessel was covered with a layer of blue glass enamel, a glamorous glitter – porcelain made in China has since come out.
From Tao to porcelain across, in addition to the higher temperature of the heat, glaze is also crucial role. Glaze, in fact, is silicate, quartz, feldspar and other mineral mixed, after grinding, water coated on the surface of the tire after baptism, the case of high temperature melting, the formation of glassy cooling protective layer. The earliest Chinese people mastered this kind of products, dust-proof, anti-corrosion, easy to clean glazing decoration technology, described as a huge leap in the history of human technology.
Three Kingdoms Southern and Northern Dynasties, porcelain firing temperature continues to rise to 1200 degrees, the glaze technology has also been improved to the Tang Dynasty, has been able to burn nearly white porcelain Xingyao porcelain; to the Song Dynasty, porcelain burning industry unprecedented prosperity, the category Diversified, decorated rich, official, Columbia, Ru, Jun, set five famous kilns, plus built kiln, Longquan kiln, Cizhou kiln, Yaozhou kiln, kiln and other famous Kiln products, north and south, flowers bloom.
In the Yuan Dynasty, on the basis of high temperature and glazing, the last important distinction between pottery and porcelain came into being finally – kaolin, the clay raw material produced only in Jingdezhen, possessed the qualities of exquisiteness, plasticity and Fire resistance, which is also directly for the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties successively fired blue and white, multicolored, pastels, bucket color, monochrome glaze porcelain and other fine varieties laid an important foundation.
Later, in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, the Japanese pirates intercepted the Silk Road on the Sea and the trade deficits with China of the Netherlands, Spain and Germany all accelerated the outflow of porcelain technology. After two or three hundred years of replication, improvement, innovation, and ultimately the formation of today’s world porcelain pattern.